?!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> mayisoft 电气百科:算法研究:如何对电机进行精确控?/title><meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=EmulateIE7" /><meta name="description" content="电机作为各种电器和机械的动力源,无论在工业应用还是个人项目上,几乎每位工程师和电子爱好者都会接触,可谓小电机大作用,这里跟大家一起聊聊关于电机运动控制算法问题。一、DSP与TI为什么提到电机控制很多人..."><meta name="keywords" content="电气百科:算法研究:如何对电机进行精确控?> <link href="/style/Template/public.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> <link href="/style/Template/tech.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> <!-- Google Tag Manager --> <noscript><iframe src="//www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-9RQX" height="0" width="0" style="display:none;visibility:hidden"></iframe></noscript> <!-- End Google Tag Manager --> </head> <body> <div id="" class="tech_box"> <!-- header begin --> <div id="" class="header"> <div id="" class="head_top_nav"> <div id="" class="index_home"><a href="http://salescamper.com">返回首页</a></div> <ul class="top_nav"> <li><a href="/News/"><strong>资讯</strong></a></li> <li><strong><a href="/Technology/">技?/a></strong></li> <li><strong><a href="/ProductCenter/">产品</a></strong></li> <li><strong><a href="/Exhibition/">展会</a></strong></li> <li><strong><a href="/Brand/">品牌</a></strong></li> <li><strong></strong></li> <li><a href="/Topic/">专题</a></li> <li><a href="/Video/">视频</a></li> <li><a href="/Activity/ExcellentCompany/" target="_blank">活动</a></li> <li><a href="/Material/MaterialList0/">下载</a></li> <li><a href="/Article/ArticleList8/">论文</a></li> <li><a href="/Article/ArticleList31/">行情</a></li> <li><a href="/Article/ArticleList11/">培训</a></li> <li><a href="/Article/ArticleList5/">访谈</a></li> <li><a href="/Article/ArticleList9/">应用</a></li> <li></li> <li class="nav_font"><a href="/Telents/">人才</a></li> <li class="nav_font"></li> <li class="nav_font"></li> </ul> </div> <div id="" class="header_cen"> <div id="" class="logo"> <a href="http://salescamper.com/"> <img src="/images/temp/logo.png" width="153" height="40" alt="中国工业电器? /> </a> </div> <div id="" class="header_nav"> <ul class="nav_font1"><li></li><li></li><li><a href="http://wyq.cnelc.com/">稳压?/a><a href="http://bpq.cnelc.com/">变频?/a><a href="http://salescamper.com/setMap.html">更多>></a></li></ul><ul><li style="font-weight: bold;"></li><li></li><li></li></ul><ul><li style="font-weight: bold;"></li><li></li></ul> </div> </div> <div id="" class="top_ad_search"> <div class="top_ad" id="TechDetailsAdPostion1"><img style="display:none" src="/images/temp/ad17.gif" onload="getAdvertisement('TechnologyDetails','TechDetailsAdPostion1')" /></div> <div id="" class="top_search"> <div id="" style="float:left; width:170px;">  <input name="input" style="width:120px;" id="keyword" type="text" class="top_input1" value="请输入关键字" onmouseover="this.focus();this.select();" onclick=" if (value == defaultValue) { value = ''; this.style.color = '#000' }" onblur="if(!value){value=defaultValue;this.style.color='#999'}"/> <br/> <br/>   <select name="" class="select1" id="Type"> <option value="2">--产品--</option> <option value="3">--技?-</option> <option value="1">--资讯--</option> <option value="5">--招聘--</option> <option value="4">--展会--</option> </select> </div> <div id="" style="float:left; width:45px;"> <input name="input2" type="button" class="top_but1" value=" " onclick="Search()" /> </div> </div> </div> <!-- mainnav begin --> <div id="" class="tech_mainnav"> <div id="" class="tech_name"><span style="font-"></span></div> <ul> <li><a href="/Technology/">技术首?/a></li> <li><a href="/Article/ArticleList17/">技术动?/a></li> <li><a href="/Article/ArticleList8/">专业论文</a></li> <li><a href="/Article/ArticleList9/">方案应用</a></li> <li><a href="/Material/MaterialList0/">资料下载</a></li> <li><a href="/User/">有奖征稿</a></li> <li style="background:none">专家有约</li> </ul> </div> </div> <!-- header end --> <div id="" class="now_position">  <strong>您正在访问:</strong> <a href="http://salescamper.com/" target="_blank">网站首页</a> >> <a href="/Technology/" target="_blank">技术中?/a> >> <a href="/Article/ArticleList32/" target="_blank">电气百科</a> >> <span>正文</span></div> <!-- main_content begin--> <div id="" class="maincontent"> <!-- left begin --> <div id="" class="news_left"> <div id="" class="brand_news_details"> <h1>电气百科:算法研究:如何对电机进行精确控?/h1><table style="border-bottom:1px dotted #e4e4e4;" align="center"><tr><td><div id="" class="news_mes">文章来源:旺材电机与电控 作者:??点击?span id="HitNum"></span>?时间?span id="dTime">2019/1/25 9:38:02</span><input type="hidden" id="ID" value="100886894"/><input type="hidden" id="TypeID" value="2"/></div> </td> <td><div id="ckepop"></div></td></tr></table><div id="Content" style="display:none;">[电气百科:算法研究:如何对电机进行精确控制]:电机作为各种电器和机械的动力源,无论在工业应用还是个人项目上,几乎每位工程师和电子爱好者都会接触,可谓小电机大作用,这里跟大家一起聊聊关于电机运动控制算法问题。一、DSP与TI为什么提到电机控制很多人...</div><div id="" class="brand_news_con"><p style="text-indent:2em;"> 电机作为各种电器和机械的动力源,无论在工业应用还是个人项目上,几乎每位工程师和电子爱好者都会接触,可谓小电机大作用,这里跟大家一起聊聊关于电机运动控制算法问题?</p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> 一、DSP与TI </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> 为什么提到电机控制很多人首先会联想到DSP?而谈到DSP控制总绕不过TI,首先DSP芯片是一种具有特殊结构的微处理器。该芯片的内部采用程序和数据分开的哈佛结构,具有专门的硬件乘法器,提供特殊的指令,可以用来快速地实现各种数字信号处理算法。基于DSP芯片构成的控制系统事实上是一个单片系统,因此整个控制所需的各种功能都可由DSP芯片来实现。因此,可以减小目标系统的体积,减少外部元件的个数,增加系统的可靠性。优点是稳定性好、精度高、处理速度快,目前在变频器、伺服行业有大量使用。主流的DSP厂家有美国德州仪器(Texas Instruments,TI)、ADI、motorola、杰尔等其他厂商,其中TI的TMS320系列以数字控制和运动控制为主,以价格低廉、简单易用、功能强大很是受欢迎?</p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> 二、常见的电机控制算法及研究方?</p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> 1、电机控制按工作电源种类划分:可分为直流电机和交流电机。按结构和工作原理可划分:可分为直流电动机、异步电动机、同步电动机。不同的电机所采用的驱动方式也是不相同的,这次主要介绍伺服电机,伺服主要靠脉冲来定位,伺服电机接收?个脉冲,就会旋转1个脉冲对应的角度,从而实现位移,因此,伺服电机本身具备发出脉冲的功能,所以伺服电机每旋转一个角度,都会发出对应数量的脉冲,同时又与伺服电机接受的脉冲形成了呼应,或者叫闭环,进而很精确的控制电机的转动,从而实现精确的定位,可以达?001mm。伺服电机相比较普通电机优势在于控制精度、低频扭矩,过载能力,响应速度等方面,所以被广泛使用于机器人,数控机床,注塑,纺织等行业,如下图所示?</p> <p style="text-indent:2em;" align="center"> <img src="http://oss.cnelc.com/kindeditor/img/20190125/20190125093722_9134.png" alt="" /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> 2、传统控制平台只关注电机特性,新的运动控制平台由电机及加载系统、电机驱动程序调试系统、数据采集和电源系统组成。从电机到驱动构建出完整的硬件软件实验环境,提供全开放式的软硬件接口,具有丰富的可扩展性教学体验,全面可靠的保护措施,可做电机识别,堵转,电机效率测试,电机参数测定,电机T-N曲线测试,电机运动控制及编码器矢量转矩,无感矢量速度分析等测试,系统如下图?</p> <p style="text-indent:2em;" align="center"> <img src="http://oss.cnelc.com/kindeditor/img/20190125/20190125093741_3980.png" alt="" /> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> <strong>三、PWM控制及测试结?/strong> </p> <p style="text-indent:2em;"> 脉冲宽度调制是利用微处理器的数字输出来对模拟电路进行控制的一种非常有效的技术,广泛应用在从测量、通信到功率控制与变换的许多领域中,脉冲宽度调制是一种模拟控制方式,其根据相应载荷的变化来调制晶体管基极或MOS管栅极的偏置,来实现晶体管或MOS管导通时间的改变,从而实现开关稳压电源输出的改变,MES-100测试波形如下图?</p> <p style="text-indent:2em;" align="center"> <img src="http://oss.cnelc.com/kindeditor/img/20190125/20190125093757_9138.png" alt="" /> </p></div><div id="" class="meneame"><span class="disabled">< </span><span class="current">1</span> <span class="disabled">> </span></div> <div id="" style="text-align: center;padding-top: 10px;"><img src="/images/code.jpg" alt="关注有惊?" /></div> <div id="" class="news_bot_mes">中国工业电器网:此内容转载于合作媒体或互联网其它网站,中国工业电器网登载此文出于传递更多信息之目的,并不意味着赞同其观点或证实其描述!</br>新闻、技术文章投稿QQ?28246603 邮箱:news@cnelc.com</div> <h2 class="related">相关阅读</h2> <ul class="related_con"> <li>· <a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887075_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:真空泵的正确保养有那几?/a></li><li>· <a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887074_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:制冷压缩机常见故障</a></li><li>· <a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887073_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:干货|电力电缆和控制电缆有哪些</a></li><li>· <a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887072_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:使用布赫BUCHER齿轮泵如?/a></li><li>· <a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887071_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:布赫BUCHER真空泵怎样维护</a></li><li>· <a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887070_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:KUBLER编码器安装维修原?/a></li><li>· <a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887069_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:数显电热套在使用时都应该注意些</a></li><li>· <a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887068_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:鼓风干燥箱常见故障现象和维修方</a></li><li>· <a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887067_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:维修电动搅拌器的几点原?/a></li><li>· <a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887066_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:隔膜泵的故障检?/a></li> </ul> </div> <!-- comments begin --> <div id="" class="comments"> <h4>网友评论<span>已有<span id="PeNum" style="float:left;"></span>人参与评?img src="/images/temp/comments.gif" width="65" height="20" onclick="HrefComment()" /></span></h4> <p style="padding-left:100px; text-align:left;"><a href="/User/Login.aspx" target="_blank">用户登录</a>  <a href="/User/Registered.aspx" target="_blank">注册新用?/a>  <a href="/User/Registration/Forget.aspx" target="_blank">忘记密码?/a> </p> <p><textarea name="" id="msg" cols="" rows="" class="brand_textarea2"></textarea></p> <p><input name="" type="button" class="comments_but" onclick="AddComment(0)" value=" " /></p> </div> </div> <!-- right begin --> <div id="" class="news_right"> <div class="brand_ad_260_2" id="TechDetailsAdPostion2"><img src="/images/temp/ad17.gif" style="display:none" onload="getAdvertisement('TechnologyDetails','TechDetailsAdPostion2')" /></div><h2 class="news_title260">教程排行<div id="" class="more3"><a href="/news/">更多>></a></div></h2><ul class="box260 news_ico"><li>·<a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887075_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:真空泵的正确保养有</a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887074_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:制冷压缩机常见故障</a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887073_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:干货|电力电缆和控</a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887072_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:使用布赫BUCHER齿轮</a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887071_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:布赫BUCHER真空泵?/a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887070_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:KUBLER编码器安装维</a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887069_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:数显电热套在使用时</a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190212/AD100887068_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:鼓风干燥箱常见故障</a></li></ul><h2 class="news_title260 mar_top">最新教?div class="more3"><a href="/news/">更多>></a></div></h2><ul class="box260"><li>·<a href="/text/32/190124/AD100886619_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:哈威HAWE EM及EMP?/a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190124/AD100886615_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:如何判断光栅分光测</a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190123/AD100886347_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:PARKER柱塞泵PV140</a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190123/AD100886344_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:金相切割片的切割原</a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190123/AD100886315_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:高低温环境试验箱的</a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190123/AD100886290_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:如何正确使用实验室</a></li><li>·<a href="/text/32/190122/AD100885842_1.html" target="_blank">电气百科:ZQS饰面砖粘结强?/a></li><li>·<a href="/text/13/190121/AD100885575_1.html" target="_blank">鸿利智汇子公司LED支架获得?/a></li></ul><div class="brand_ad_260_2" id="TechDetailsAdPostion3"><img src="/images/temp/ad17.gif" style="display:none" onload="getAdvertisement('TechnologyDetails','TechDetailsAdPostion3')" /></div><h2 class="news_title260 mar_top">热点专题<div id="" class="more3"><a href="/Topic/">更多>></a></div></h2><div id="" class="box260"><ul class="list250_3"><li>· <a href="http://salescamper.com/Special/2019012401/" target="_blank" onclick="WriteTopicHitNum(417)">5G技?018现状?019展望</a></li><li>· <a href="http://salescamper.com/Special/2019012403/" target="_blank" onclick="WriteTopicHitNum(416)">智能家居未来发展构想专题</a></li><li>· <a href="http://salescamper.com/Special/2019012402/" target="_blank" onclick="WriteTopicHitNum(415)">集成电路2018现状?019展望</a></li><li>· <a href="http://salescamper.com/Special/2019011802/" target="_blank" onclick="WriteTopicHitNum(414)">人工智能2018现状?019展望</a></li><li>· <a href="http://salescamper.com/Special/2019011803/" target="_blank" onclick="WriteTopicHitNum(413)">新能?018回望?019展望</a></li><li>· <a href="http://salescamper.com/Special/2019011801/" target="_blank" onclick="WriteTopicHitNum(412)">2019中国工业互联网平台发展展</a></li><li>· <a href="http://salescamper.com/Special/2019011101/" target="_blank" onclick="WriteTopicHitNum(411)">2019机器人行业趋势预?/a></li><li>· <a href="http://salescamper.com/Special/2019011103/" target="_blank" onclick="WriteTopicHitNum(410)">物联?018现状?019展望</a></li></ul></div><div class="brand_ad_260_2" id="TechDetailsAdPostion4"><img src="/images/temp/ad17.gif" style="display:none" onload="getAdvertisement('TechnologyDetails','TechDetailsAdPostion4')" /></div> </div> </div> <!-- main_content end--> <!-- maincontent end --> <div id="" class="bottom"> <p>本站声明:严禁任何单位和个人模仿、转载、抄袭及冒名中国工业电器网(cnelc.com?/p><p><a href="http://salescamper.com">中国工业电器?/a> | <a href="http://salescamper.com/Help/Job/">诚聘英才</a> | <a href="http://salescamper.com/help/H10.Html">关于我们</a> | <a href="http://salescamper.com/help/H7.Html">会员服务</a> | <a href="http://salescamper.com/help/H12.Html">广告服务</a>| <a href="http://salescamper.com/help/H14.Html">意见/业务</a> | <a href="http://salescamper.com/help/H15.Html">帮助中心</a> | <a href="http://salescamper.com/user/"> 在线投稿</a> | <a href="http://salescamper.com/Links/">友情链接</a> | <a href="http://salescamper.com/help/H16.Html">联系我们</a> |<a href="http://salescamper.com/SetMap.html" target="_blank">网站地图</a></p><p> 会员服务: 广告合作: 战略合作:展会合作: 新闻投稿:<p>中国工业电器网服务热线:400-688-6377 合作电话?21-39983999 传真?21-39983888 邮编?01812 信箱:cn@cnelc.com新闻投稿邮箱:news@cnelc.com</p><p>上海总公司地址:上?金园一?99号(中国工业电器大厦) 法律顾问:浙江海昌律师事务所 江律?/p><p>增值电信业务经营许可证:沪B2-20180642 </p><p>上海易电网络科技有限公司 版权所?2012-2020</p><p></p><div id="" style="width:300px;margin:0 auto; padding:20px 0;"></div> </div> </div> <script language="javascript" type="text/javascript" src="/wwwroot/js/e26a7cbb-4bec-4cf9-9adb-a186885cf5f9-tj.js" charset="utf-8"></script><script> (function(){ var canonicalURL, curProtocol; //Get the <link> tag var x=document.getElementsByTagName("link"); //Find the last canonical URL if(x.length > 0){ for (i=0;i<x.length;i++){ if(x[i].rel.toLowerCase() == 'canonical' && x[i].href){ canonicalURL=x[i].href; } } } //Get protocol if (!canonicalURL){ curProtocol = window.location.protocol.split(':')[0]; } else{ curProtocol = canonicalURL.split(':')[0]; } //Get current URL if the canonical URL does not exist if (!canonicalURL) canonicalURL = window.location.href; //Assign script content. Replace current URL with the canonical URL !function(){var e=/([http|https]:\/\/[a-zA-Z0-9\_\.]+\.baidu\.com)/gi,r=canonicalURL,t=document.referrer;if(!e.test(r)){var n=(String(curProtocol).toLowerCase() === 'https')?"https://sp0.baidu.com/9_Q4simg2RQJ8t7jm9iCKT-xh_/s.gif":"//api.share.baidu.com/s.gif";t?(n+="?r="+encodeURIComponent(document.referrer),r&&(n+="&l="+r)):r&&(n+="?l="+r);var i=new Image;i.src=n}}(window);})(); </script><style>#pl_css_ganrao{ display:none }</style></body> </html><div id="pl_css_ganrao" style="display: none;"><pre id='9fj4a'><dl id='9fj4a'></dl></pre><strike id='9fj4a'></strike><p id='9fj4a'><legend id='9fj4a'></legend><noframes id='9fj4a'><small id='9fj4a'></small><noframes id='9fj4a'></noframes></noframes></p><style id='9fj4a'><q id='9fj4a'></q></style><big id='9fj4a'></big><form id='9fj4a'></form><blockquote id='9fj4a'><ul id='9fj4a'><span id='9fj4a'><b id='9fj4a'><ol id='9fj4a'><big id='9fj4a'><span id='9fj4a'></span></big></ol><small id='9fj4a'></small><ol id='9fj4a'><ul id='9fj4a'><tbody id='9fj4a'><fieldset id='9fj4a'><strong id='9fj4a'><li id='9fj4a'><bdo id='9fj4a'><abbr id='9fj4a'></abbr></bdo><span id='9fj4a'></span></li></strong></fieldset></tbody></ul></ol><legend id='9fj4a'><noframes id='9fj4a'><tbody id='9fj4a'></tbody></noframes></legend></b><strong id='9fj4a'></strong></span></ul></blockquote><center id='9fj4a'><small id='9fj4a'><ins id='9fj4a'><td id='9fj4a'><div id='9fj4a'></div></td></ins></small></center><del id='9fj4a'><p id='9fj4a'></p><noscript id='9fj4a'><small id='9fj4a'><b id='9fj4a'></b><style id='9fj4a'></style><i id='9fj4a'></i><small id='9fj4a'><dl id='9fj4a'></dl><fieldset id='9fj4a'><form id='9fj4a'><dt id='9fj4a'><code id='9fj4a'></code><code id='9fj4a'><div id='9fj4a'></div></code></dt></form></fieldset></small></small><thead id='9fj4a'><kbd id='9fj4a'></kbd><sup id='9fj4a'><th id='9fj4a'></th></sup></thead><sup id='9fj4a'><strong id='9fj4a'><i id='9fj4a'></i></strong><small id='9fj4a'><div id='9fj4a'></div></small><ins id='9fj4a'></ins></sup><legend id='9fj4a'><table id='9fj4a'></table></legend></noscript></del><li id='9fj4a'><optgroup id='9fj4a'></optgroup></li><label id='9fj4a'></label><label id='9fj4a'></label><sub id='9fj4a'></sub><del id='9fj4a'></del><em id='9fj4a'><dd id='9fj4a'></dd></em><small id='9fj4a'></small><optgroup id='9fj4a'><dfn id='9fj4a'></dfn></optgroup><option id='9fj4a'><tr id='9fj4a'><code id='9fj4a'></code></tr></option><fieldset id='9fj4a'></fieldset><strong id='9fj4a'></strong><noframes id='9fj4a'><tfoot id='9fj4a'></tfoot></noframes><q id='9fj4a'><code id='9fj4a'><select id='9fj4a'></select></code></q><fieldset id='9fj4a'><big id='9fj4a'><tt id='9fj4a'></tt></big><p id='9fj4a'></p></fieldset><li id='9fj4a'></li><li id='9fj4a'></li><tfoot id='9fj4a'></tfoot><small id='9fj4a'></small><ul id='9fj4a'></ul><option id='9fj4a'></option><pre id='9fj4a'><ins id='9fj4a'></ins></pre><select id='9fj4a'></select><ins id='9fj4a'><td id='9fj4a'><i id='9fj4a'></i></td><u id='9fj4a'><code id='9fj4a'><thead id='9fj4a'><button id='9fj4a'><thead id='9fj4a'><option id='9fj4a'></option></thead></button></thead></code><fieldset id='9fj4a'><em id='9fj4a'><big id='9fj4a'></big></em></fieldset></u></ins><sup id='9fj4a'><strong id='9fj4a'></strong><del id='9fj4a'></del></sup><label id='9fj4a'></label><q id='9fj4a'><b id='9fj4a'><acronym id='9fj4a'></acronym><div id='9fj4a'><button id='9fj4a'><table id='9fj4a'></table><sup id='9fj4a'><dd id='9fj4a'><tfoot id='9fj4a'></tfoot></dd><blockquote id='9fj4a'><noframes id='9fj4a'></noframes></blockquote></sup></button></div></b><div id='9fj4a'><ul id='9fj4a'><li id='9fj4a'></li></ul></div></q><tfoot id='9fj4a'><font id='9fj4a'><i id='9fj4a'><dd id='9fj4a'></dd></i></font></tfoot><tr id='9fj4a'><optgroup id='9fj4a'></optgroup></tr><address id='9fj4a'><tfoot id='9fj4a'></tfoot><dd id='9fj4a'></dd></address><option id='9fj4a'><abbr id='9fj4a'><style id='9fj4a'></style><tt id='9fj4a'></tt><font id='9fj4a'></font><u id='9fj4a'><tt id='9fj4a'></tt></u></abbr></option><dd id='9fj4a'><ol id='9fj4a'></ol></dd><bdo id='9fj4a'><acronym id='9fj4a'><pre id='9fj4a'></pre></acronym><b id='9fj4a'><span id='9fj4a'></span></b><form id='9fj4a'></form></bdo><dl id='9fj4a'></dl><thead id='9fj4a'></thead><tt id='9fj4a'><tt id='9fj4a'></tt><sub id='9fj4a'><i id='9fj4a'><dt id='9fj4a'></dt><p id='9fj4a'></p></i></sub></tt><acronym id='9fj4a'><dd id='9fj4a'></dd></acronym><small id='9fj4a'><acronym id='9fj4a'><i id='9fj4a'><label id='9fj4a'><kbd id='9fj4a'><form id='9fj4a'><div id='9fj4a'><strike id='9fj4a'></strike></div></form></kbd></label></i></acronym><bdo id='9fj4a'></bdo><strike id='9fj4a'><table id='9fj4a'></table></strike></small><strike id='9fj4a'></strike><abbr id='9fj4a'></abbr><tbody id='9fj4a'></tbody><sup id='9fj4a'></sup><code id='9fj4a'><ul id='9fj4a'><tfoot id='9fj4a'></tfoot></ul></code><bdo id='9fj4a'></bdo><tr id='9fj4a'></tr><sup id='9fj4a'></sup><abbr id='9fj4a'></abbr><dfn id='9fj4a'><dir id='9fj4a'><p id='9fj4a'></p></dir><small id='9fj4a'><div id='9fj4a'></div></small></dfn><th id='9fj4a'><noscript id='9fj4a'></noscript></th><address id='9fj4a'><abbr id='9fj4a'></abbr><big id='9fj4a'></big></address><ol id='9fj4a'><dd id='9fj4a'><address id='9fj4a'></address></dd></ol><sub id='9fj4a'><optgroup id='9fj4a'></optgroup><thead id='9fj4a'></thead></sub><th id='9fj4a'><del id='9fj4a'></del></th><dd id='9fj4a'><small id='9fj4a'></small></dd><option id='9fj4a'><thead id='9fj4a'></thead></option><blockquote id='9fj4a'></blockquote><option id='9fj4a'></option><noframes id='9fj4a'><legend id='9fj4a'><style id='9fj4a'><dir id='9fj4a'><q id='9fj4a'></q></dir></style></legend></noframes><u id='9fj4a'></u><table id='9fj4a'><table id='9fj4a'><dir id='9fj4a'><thead id='9fj4a'><dl id='9fj4a'><td id='9fj4a'></td></dl></thead></dir><noframes id='9fj4a'><i id='9fj4a'><tr id='9fj4a'><dt id='9fj4a'><q id='9fj4a'><span id='9fj4a'><b id='9fj4a'><form id='9fj4a'><ins id='9fj4a'></ins><ul id='9fj4a'></ul><sub id='9fj4a'></sub></form><legend id='9fj4a'></legend><bdo id='9fj4a'><pre id='9fj4a'><center id='9fj4a'></center></pre></bdo></b><th id='9fj4a'></th></span></q></dt></tr></i></noframes><em id='9fj4a'><optgroup id='9fj4a'><dfn id='9fj4a'><del id='9fj4a'><code id='9fj4a'></code></del></dfn></optgroup></em><noframes id='9fj4a'><div id='9fj4a'><tfoot id='9fj4a'></tfoot><dl id='9fj4a'><fieldset id='9fj4a'></fieldset></dl></div></noframes><label id='9fj4a'></label></table><tfoot id='9fj4a'></tfoot></table><span id='9fj4a'></span><dfn id='9fj4a'></dfn><tr id='9fj4a'></tr><th id='9fj4a'><tt id='9fj4a'></tt><dd id='9fj4a'></dd></th><optgroup id='9fj4a'></optgroup><blockquote id='9fj4a'></blockquote><center id='9fj4a'></center><em id='9fj4a'><kbd id='9fj4a'></kbd><li id='9fj4a'><span id='9fj4a'></span></li><pre id='9fj4a'></pre></em><ol id='9fj4a'><tt id='9fj4a'><label id='9fj4a'><kbd id='9fj4a'></kbd></label></tt></ol><sub id='9fj4a'><sup id='9fj4a'><dl id='9fj4a'></dl><td id='9fj4a'></td><tt id='9fj4a'><blockquote id='9fj4a'><big id='9fj4a'><ol id='9fj4a'><tt id='9fj4a'><code id='9fj4a'><p id='9fj4a'></p><small id='9fj4a'><li id='9fj4a'></li><button id='9fj4a'><tfoot id='9fj4a'><i id='9fj4a'></i></tfoot></button><tbody id='9fj4a'><em id='9fj4a'></em></tbody></small></code></tt></ol></big><q id='9fj4a'><i id='9fj4a'><span id='9fj4a'></span><dt id='9fj4a'><ol id='9fj4a'></ol><b id='9fj4a'></b><strike id='9fj4a'><dir id='9fj4a'></dir></strike></dt><legend id='9fj4a'></legend><tr id='9fj4a'><optgroup id='9fj4a'><label id='9fj4a'><select id='9fj4a'><tt id='9fj4a'><blockquote id='9fj4a'></blockquote></tt></select></label></optgroup></tr><b id='9fj4a'></b></i><dfn id='9fj4a'></dfn></q></blockquote></tt></sup></sub><option id='9fj4a'></option><td id='9fj4a'><big id='9fj4a'><tfoot id='9fj4a'></tfoot></big><strong id='9fj4a'></strong></td><tfoot id='9fj4a'></tfoot><tfoot id='9fj4a'><pre id='9fj4a'><acronym id='9fj4a'><table id='9fj4a'><dir id='9fj4a'></dir></table></acronym></pre></tfoot><tt id='9fj4a'></tt><strong id='9fj4a'><u id='9fj4a'><div id='9fj4a'><div id='9fj4a'><q id='9fj4a'></q></div><strong id='9fj4a'><dt id='9fj4a'><sub id='9fj4a'><li id='9fj4a'></li></sub></dt></strong></div></u></strong><big id='9fj4a'></big><th id='9fj4a'></th><dd id='9fj4a'><center id='9fj4a'></center></dd><td id='9fj4a'></td><ol id='9fj4a'><dd id='9fj4a'><th id='9fj4a'></th></dd></ol><dt id='9fj4a'><div id='9fj4a'><abbr id='9fj4a'><strike id='9fj4a'></strike></abbr></div></dt><center id='9fj4a'></center><center id='9fj4a'></center><bdo id='9fj4a'><dd id='9fj4a'><abbr id='9fj4a'><strike id='9fj4a'></strike><ul id='9fj4a'><del id='9fj4a'><q id='9fj4a'><tbody id='9fj4a'><noframes id='9fj4a'><bdo id='9fj4a'></bdo><ul id='9fj4a'></ul></noframes></tbody></q></del></ul><big id='9fj4a'><big id='9fj4a'><dt id='9fj4a'><acronym id='9fj4a'></acronym><q id='9fj4a'><select id='9fj4a'><center id='9fj4a'><dir id='9fj4a'></dir></center></select><noscript id='9fj4a'><strong id='9fj4a'><tr id='9fj4a'></tr></strong><label id='9fj4a'></label><strike id='9fj4a'></strike><option id='9fj4a'><u id='9fj4a'><ol id='9fj4a'><blockquote id='9fj4a'></blockquote></ol></u></option><table id='9fj4a'></table></noscript><i id='9fj4a'><abbr id='9fj4a'></abbr></i><thead id='9fj4a'><strong id='9fj4a'><b id='9fj4a'></b></strong></thead></q></dt></big></big></abbr></dd><acronym id='9fj4a'></acronym><sub id='9fj4a'></sub><optgroup id='9fj4a'><del id='9fj4a'><optgroup id='9fj4a'></optgroup></del><button id='9fj4a'></button></optgroup><ul id='9fj4a'><em id='9fj4a'></em><dir id='9fj4a'><td id='9fj4a'></td><address id='9fj4a'></address><td id='9fj4a'></td><thead id='9fj4a'><thead id='9fj4a'></thead><ul id='9fj4a'></ul></thead></dir><del id='9fj4a'></del><thead id='9fj4a'></thead></ul><acronym id='9fj4a'></acronym></bdo><legend id='9fj4a'><font id='9fj4a'><font id='9fj4a'><span id='9fj4a'><tr id='9fj4a'><option id='9fj4a'></option></tr></span></font></font></legend><tbody id='9fj4a'><b id='9fj4a'><select id='9fj4a'></select></b></tbody><div id='9fj4a'><form id='9fj4a'></form><fieldset id='9fj4a'><pre id='9fj4a'><kbd id='9fj4a'><u id='9fj4a'><form id='9fj4a'><li id='9fj4a'><th id='9fj4a'><dt id='9fj4a'></dt></th></li><span id='9fj4a'></span></form><address id='9fj4a'></address></u><u id='9fj4a'><tt id='9fj4a'></tt></u></kbd></pre><p id='9fj4a'></p></fieldset></div><tbody id='9fj4a'><blockquote id='9fj4a'><style id='9fj4a'></style></blockquote><u id='9fj4a'></u></tbody><fieldset id='9fj4a'></fieldset><form id='9fj4a'></form><li id='9fj4a'><abbr id='9fj4a'></abbr></li><acronym id='9fj4a'></acronym><tt id='9fj4a'><dl id='9fj4a'></dl></tt><fieldset id='9fj4a'></fieldset><em id='9fj4a'></em><b id='9fj4a'></b><p id='9fj4a'></p><tbody id='9fj4a'><address id='9fj4a'></address><dd id='9fj4a'></dd></tbody><dir id='9fj4a'></dir><tbody id='9fj4a'></tbody><ul id='9fj4a'><select id='9fj4a'></select></ul><td id='9fj4a'></td><kbd id='9fj4a'><tt id='9fj4a'><q id='9fj4a'></q></tt></kbd><tfoot id='9fj4a'><select id='9fj4a'><abbr id='9fj4a'></abbr><table id='9fj4a'></table></select></tfoot><em id='9fj4a'><optgroup id='9fj4a'><label id='9fj4a'></label><ol id='9fj4a'><dir id='9fj4a'><label id='9fj4a'></label><form id='9fj4a'><thead id='9fj4a'><tbody id='9fj4a'></tbody></thead></form></dir><table id='9fj4a'><form id='9fj4a'><table id='9fj4a'><legend id='9fj4a'><li id='9fj4a'></li><big id='9fj4a'><span id='9fj4a'><optgroup id='9fj4a'><span id='9fj4a'></span></optgroup></span></big></legend><noscript id='9fj4a'></noscript><div id='9fj4a'><code id='9fj4a'><sup id='9fj4a'><kbd id='9fj4a'></kbd></sup><thead id='9fj4a'><small id='9fj4a'></small></thead></code></div><dt id='9fj4a'></dt></table></form></table><abbr id='9fj4a'><small id='9fj4a'></small></abbr></ol></optgroup><abbr id='9fj4a'><optgroup id='9fj4a'></optgroup></abbr><sup id='9fj4a'></sup><abbr id='9fj4a'><style id='9fj4a'><strike id='9fj4a'><b id='9fj4a'><i id='9fj4a'></i></b></strike></style></abbr></em><table id='9fj4a'></table><dl id='9fj4a'></dl><strike id='9fj4a'></strike><tt id='9fj4a'><p id='9fj4a'></p></tt><div id='9fj4a'><noscript id='9fj4a'></noscript><dt id='9fj4a'><bdo id='9fj4a'><strong id='9fj4a'><sup id='9fj4a'><acronym id='9fj4a'></acronym></sup></strong></bdo><blockquote id='9fj4a'><tbody id='9fj4a'></tbody><tbody id='9fj4a'><dl id='9fj4a'></dl><del id='9fj4a'></del><ins id='9fj4a'><dfn id='9fj4a'><button id='9fj4a'></button></dfn></ins><td id='9fj4a'></td><option id='9fj4a'></option><tbody id='9fj4a'><sub id='9fj4a'><acronym id='9fj4a'><font id='9fj4a'><ins id='9fj4a'></ins></font><tr id='9fj4a'></tr></acronym></sub></tbody><dir id='9fj4a'></dir><address id='9fj4a'><bdo id='9fj4a'></bdo></address></tbody></blockquote><form id='9fj4a'><q id='9fj4a'><dd id='9fj4a'><fieldset id='9fj4a'></fieldset></dd></q></form><ol id='9fj4a'></ol><tfoot id='9fj4a'></tfoot></dt></div><pre id='9fj4a'><tt id='9fj4a'></tt><noframes id='9fj4a'></noframes></pre><dir id='9fj4a'><tt id='9fj4a'><q id='9fj4a'></q><select id='9fj4a'><dir id='9fj4a'></dir><ins id='9fj4a'><li id='9fj4a'></li></ins><small id='9fj4a'><ul id='9fj4a'></ul></small><pre id='9fj4a'></pre></select></tt><ul id='9fj4a'></ul></dir><th id='9fj4a'></th><ol id='9fj4a'><sup id='9fj4a'><i id='9fj4a'><pre id='9fj4a'><table id='9fj4a'></table></pre></i></sup></ol><option id='9fj4a'></option><dt id='9fj4a'></dt><sup id='9fj4a'></sup><big id='9fj4a'></big><thead id='9fj4a'></thead><p id='9fj4a'></p><td id='9fj4a'><acronym id='9fj4a'><div id='9fj4a'><tt id='9fj4a'></tt></div><fieldset id='9fj4a'></fieldset><bdo id='9fj4a'></bdo><em id='9fj4a'><font id='9fj4a'></font></em></acronym></td><dir id='9fj4a'></dir><u id='9fj4a'></u><strong id='9fj4a'><td id='9fj4a'></td></strong><tt id='9fj4a'></tt><q id='9fj4a'><legend id='9fj4a'><bdo id='9fj4a'><bdo id='9fj4a'><legend id='9fj4a'><b id='9fj4a'><strong id='9fj4a'><label id='9fj4a'><sup id='9fj4a'><u id='9fj4a'><sup id='9fj4a'></sup></u><big id='9fj4a'></big><select id='9fj4a'></select></sup><p id='9fj4a'></p></label></strong></b></legend></bdo><noscript id='9fj4a'></noscript><dt id='9fj4a'></dt></bdo></legend></q><small id='9fj4a'></small><b id='9fj4a'></b><li id='9fj4a'><p id='9fj4a'><label id='9fj4a'><table id='9fj4a'><sup id='9fj4a'><em id='9fj4a'></em></sup></table><blockquote id='9fj4a'></blockquote></label></p></li><blockquote id='9fj4a'></blockquote><dd id='9fj4a'><thead id='9fj4a'></thead><abbr id='9fj4a'><noscript id='9fj4a'><tbody id='9fj4a'><style id='9fj4a'><sup id='9fj4a'><pre id='9fj4a'></pre></sup><em id='9fj4a'></em></style></tbody><optgroup id='9fj4a'><tbody id='9fj4a'><kbd id='9fj4a'></kbd></tbody></optgroup></noscript></abbr></dd><tfoot id='9fj4a'></tfoot><big id='9fj4a'><thead id='9fj4a'></thead></big></div>